Statistical Summary – Aviation Occurrences 2008

View document in PDF

You need a PDF reader to access this file. Find out more on our help page.

Foreword

This document provides users of Canadian aviation safety data with an annual summary of selected statistics on aviation occurrences.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics can change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified. Therefore, caution should be used when utilizing these statistics. The 2008 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated as of 18 March 2009.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary, Aviation Occurrences 2008, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.

Comments on this document can be forwarded to the following address:

Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Communications Division
Place du Centre
200 Promenade du Portage
4th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 1K8

Telephone: (819) 994-3741
Facsimile: (819) 997-2239
E-mail: communications@tsb.gc.ca

©  Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2008
Cat. No. TU1-3/2008E
ISBN 978-1-100-17630-7


Aviation Occurrences in 2008

Accidents

Overview of Accidents and Fatalities (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 8)

In 2008, a total of 295 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB. Of this number, 251 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights), an 11.6% decrease from 2007 (Figure 1).

Flying activity is comparable to last year and the accident rate has decreased from the 2007 accident rate of 6.6 accidents per 100 000 flying hours to 5.5. Statistical analysis using linear regression indicates a significant downward trend in accident rates (p < .001)1 over the past 10 years.

The 251 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) included 200 aeroplanes2 (67 of which were commercially operated) and 42 helicopters. The remaining 13 were balloons, gliders or gyrocopters.

Figure 1—Accidents and Accident Rates,3 1999–2008 [D]

Figure 1. Accidents and  Accident Rates, 1999–2008

Of the 67 commercial aeroplanes (8 airliners, 6 commuter aircraft, 41 air taxi and 12 aerial work) involved in accidents in 2008 (Figure 2), 3 air taxi aircraft were involved in fatal accidents. There were no fatal accidents involving airliners, commuter aircraft or aerial work aircraft.

A total of 130 private/corporate/other aeroplanes were involved in accidents, 18% lower than the five-year average of 158. In 2008, 12 such accidents resulted in fatalities, down from 18 in 2007 and less than the five-year average of 16.

Figure 2—Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2008 [D]

Figure 2. Canadian-Registered Aircraft  Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2008

In 2008, Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, were involved in 25 fatal accidents (Figure 3), 24% lower than last year’s total of 33 and lower than the 2003–2007 average of 31. The number of fatalities (49) was slightly lower than the five-year average (50), and the number of serious injuries (39) also decreased slightly from the five-year average (40). Passenger fatalities accounted for 53% of aircraft fatalities in 2008, and crew member fatalities accounted for 45% (excluding fatalities from ultralight accidents). One ground fatality occurred in 2008.

Figure 3—Fatalities and Fatal Accidents, 1999–2008 [D]

Figure 3. Fatalities and Fatal  Accidents, 1999–2008

Aeroplanes operated by the state (that is, operated by federal or provincial governments) were involved in 3 accidents in 2008, with no fatalities.

In 2008, 42 helicopters were involved in accidents, yielding an 11% decrease from the five-year average of 47. Of the 42 helicopters, 9 were involved in fatal accidents, resulting in 15 fatalities. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (33%) and training (13%).

In 2008, 29 ultralight aircraft were involved in accidents in Canada, with 12 accidents resulting in 13 fatalities, which is double the five-year average.

In 2008, 15 accidents involved foreign-registered aircraft in Canada, with no fatalities.

Accidents by Selected Categories

Province (Table 3): In 2008, Ontario accounted for 25% of Canadian‑registered aircraft accidents, while Quebec and British Columbia accounted for 20% and 13% respectively. Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were lower than the five-year average in the Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, and higher than the five-year average in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon (Figure 4).

Figure 4—Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2008 [D]

Figure 4. Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2008

Events and Phases (Tables 4 to 7): Accidents are frequently classified according to the first event (or abnormal condition) in the sequence of events that led to the occurrence. This classification serves to demonstrate the nature and distribution of safety-significant events, and how these events shift over time. However, the first event should not be construed to be the cause of the accident.

In 2008, the most common first events in aeroplane accidents were take-off/landing events (17%) and collision with object events (17%). Power loss (16%) and control loss (11%) were the next most common first events. In helicopter accidents, collision with terrain (19%) and control loss (17%) were the most common first events.

The 1999-2008 statistics show that the first event leading to an accident varies substantially according to the flight phase of the aircraft involved. For aeroplanes, accidents during the landing phase account for about 38% of total accidents. The most common first events in such accidents were landing (such as nose over, tire blow-out, etc.) and control loss. Approximately 22% of aeroplane accidents occur during the take-off phase; in these accidents, power loss and control loss were the most common first events. The en-route phase accounted for about 14% of aeroplane accidents, with power loss being the most common first event in that flight phase.

The approach/landing phase accounted for 31% of helicopter accidents, with the most common first events being collision with object and power loss. The en-route phase (18%) had power loss and collision with terrain as the most common first events. The maneuvering phase (15%) had power loss and collision with object as the most common first events. About 14% of helicopter accidents occurred in the take-off phase, with control loss, collision with object, collision with terrain and dynamic rollover being common first events.

Operation Type (Table 8): In 2008, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (41%), followed by air transport (25%) and training flights (15%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (52%) and on recreational flights (21%).

Incidents

Overview of Incidents (Tables 1, 9 and 10)

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 914 incidents were reported in 2008, 725 of which involved Canadian-registered aircraft.

In 2008, the most frequent incident types were declared emergency (32%), risk of collision or loss of separation (21%), and engine failure (14%) (Figure 5).

Figure 5—Reportable Incidents by Type, 2008 [D]

Figure 5. Reportable Incidents by Type,  2008

Over the past five years, the first event in declared emergency on Canadian-registered aircraft usually involved component failures, the most common of which were landing gear or hydraulic system failures.

The majority of risk of collision/loss of separation incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft had an air traffic services (ATS)–related event4 as their first event.

Appendix A — Aviation Occurrence Tables

Table 1 – Aviation Occurrences and Casualties 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  1. Ultralight aircraft excluded
  2. As some accidents may involve multiple aircraft, the number of aircraft involved may differ from the total number of accidents.
  3. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying schools, flying clubs, etc.)
  4. Includes gliders, balloons and gyrocopters
  5. Source: Transport Canada (hours flown are estimated from 2003)
  6. Accident rate does not include "Other Aircraft Involved"

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Canadian-Registered Aircraft1
Accidents 341 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 284 251
Aeroplanes Involved2 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 200
Airliners 6 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5 8
Commuter Aircraft 13 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4 6
Air Taxi 70 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39 41
Aerial Work 18 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11 12
Corporate 6 5 4 2 2 4 6 2 7 4
State 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1 3
Private/Other3 171 175 168 139 169 145 141 146 170 126
Helicopters Involved 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42
Other Aircraft Involved4 15 12 9 10 12 9 8 4 4 13
Hours Flown (thousands)5 4046 3982 3885 3713 3790 3961 3979 4059 4266 4432
Accident Rate (per 100 000 hours)6 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.6 5.5
Fatal Accidents 34 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33 25
Aeroplanes Involved2 28 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25 15
Airliners 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Air Taxi 5 3 5 5 5 3 6 5 5 3
Aerial Work 1 2 1 1 3 0 2 1 1 0
Corporate 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
State 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Private/Other3 17 18 17 15 18 15 13 16 17 10
Helicopters Involved 4 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7 9
Other Aircraft Involved4 4 1 3 3 4 2 2 0 2 1
Fatalities 65 65 60 51 59 37 51 52 49 49
Serious Injuries 42 53 37 42 43 27 37 40 55 39
Canadian-Registered Ultralight Aircraft
Accidents 35 38 35 36 46 36 31 28 30 29
Fatal Accidents 12 5 6 9 7 6 5 1 5 12
Fatalities 19 9 8 12 9 10 6 1 6 13
Serious Injuries 7 10 8 4 14 7 9 12 7 4
Foreign-Registered Aircraft
Accidents in Canada 21 17 29 13 30 20 18 14 10 15
Fatal Accidents 5 6 8 1 6 3 6 2 0 0
Fatalities 8 16 10 2 8 10 10 2 0 0
Serious Injuries 0 2 5 0 3 2 15 1 2 5
All Aircraft: Reportable Incidents 699 725 853 865 834 910 822 826 895 914
Risk of Collision/Loss of Separation 168 161 204 193 154 223 180 171 171 176
Declared Emergency 207 225 255 280 293 278 224 260 302 327
Engine Failure 155 161 175 160 132 143 148 136 137 128
Smoke/Fire 87 84 107 101 103 94 103 107 125 108
Collision 7 8 19 22 16 21 12 21 14 8
Other 75 86 93 109 136 151 155 131 146 167

 

Table 2 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft1 Involved in Accidents, Accident Rates and Fatalities by Operator Type 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  1. Ultralight aircraft excluded
  2. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying schools, flying clubs, etc.)
  3. Source: Transport Canada (hours flown are estimated from 2003)

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Accidents
Aeroplanes Involved
Airliners 6 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5 8
Commuter Aircraft 13 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4 6
Air Taxi 70 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39 41
Aerial Work 18 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11 12
State 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1 3
Private/Other/Corporate2 177 180 172 141 171 149 147 148 177 130
Helicopters Involved 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42
Total 332 311 289 266 286 247 256 264 283 242
Hours Flown (thousands)3
Aeroplanes 3437 3377 3281 3135 3200 3351 3388 3426 3591 3698
Airliners 1247 1198 1168 1124 1148 1244 1334 1387 1469 1530
Commuter Aircraft 344 337 322 311 318 326 335 340 358 379
Air Taxi 825 792 754 683 651 655 633 609 631 652
Aerial Work 197 219 242 262 313 337 360 373 397 399
State 196 220 240 258 307 344 385 401 403 404
Private/Other/Corporate 629 612 555 496 463 445 341 316 332 334
Helicopters 609 604 604 578 590 610 591 633 675 735
Total 4046 3982 3885 3713 3790 3961 3979 4059 4266 4432
Accident Rates (per 100 000 hours)
Aeroplanes
Airliners 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5
Commuter Aircraft 3.8 1.2 2.5 1.9 2.8 0.3 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.6
Air Taxi 8.5 5.7 4.9 6.0 5.4 6.6 5.2 5.1 6.2 6.3
Aerial Work 9.1 8.7 7.4 4.6 5.4 2.4 3.9 3.7 2.8 3.0
State 1.0 0.5 1.3 1.6 1.0 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.2 0.7
Private/Other/Corporate 28.1 29.4 31.0 28.4 36.9 33.5 43.1 46.9 53.3 38.9
Helicopters 7.6 8.8 7.6 9.7 7.5 6.7 8.5 8.8 6.8 5.7
Total (all aircraft) 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.6 5.5
Fatalities: Crew
Aeroplanes
Airliners 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 2 2 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Air Taxi 6 2 4 1 5 2 6 5 6 3
Aerial Work 1 3 1 1 4 0 2 1 1 0
Corporate 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
State 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Private/Other 16 20 17 15 15 14 11 16 17 10
Helicopters 5 10 7 6 3 4 8 6 6 7
Total 33 41 32 24 27 20 29 29 31 22
Fatalities: Passengers
Aeroplanes
Airliners 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Air Taxi 4 5 8 7 10 14 2 10 2 10
Aerial Work 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
Corporate 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other 14 6 12 16 16 1 7 7 11 3
Helicopters 6 8 2 0 3 0 7 5 1 8
Total 28 20 24 23 29 15 19 22 15 26

 

Table 3 – Accidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Province/Territory 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  1. This territory was created on 01 April 1999.

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 14 10 6 9 5 5 3 5 5
Prince Edward Island 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 4 9 3 7 1 3 0 0 3 2
New Brunswick 7 5 4 2 1 5 5 2 7 1
Quebec 46 55 48 42 55 44 56 48 61 49
Ontario 106 73 64 74 80 71 57 52 71 62
Manitoba 32 17 28 17 28 12 18 18 17 24
Saskatchewan 22 9 18 18 16 13 13 18 21 18
Alberta 52 39 36 46 34 29 28 41 30 28
British Columbia 40 68 58 41 54 46 59 53 36 33
Nunavut1 0 4 2 1 0 2 2 6 4 7
Northwest Territories 14 11 12 4 5 7 5 6 9 8
Yukon 4 6 4 4 4 6 3 4 6 7
Outside Canada 9 9 7 12 7 9 7 11 14 7
Total 341 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 284 251
Fatal Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Quebec 5 5 6 6 5 4 9 3 4 4
Ontario 9 4 6 5 11 2 6 4 6 3
Manitoba 4 0 2 1 0 2 2 0 3 1
Saskatchewan 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 4 0
Alberta 5 3 2 2 3 2 2 6 3 4
British Columbia 8 10 11 9 8 6 12 9 9 6
Nunavut1 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 2
Yukon 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
Outside Canada 0 4 1 3 1 2 1 4 1 4
Total 34 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33 25
Fatalities
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 3 3 2 3 1 2 0 1 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Quebec 9 8 12 14 9 4 12 6 5 6
Ontario 14 5 8 6 27 14 10 6 7 3
Manitoba 7 0 4 1 0 2 2 0 4 1
Saskatchewan 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 5 0
Alberta 8 3 4 3 4 2 4 9 5 8
British Columbia 24 19 17 16 13 6 19 16 15 22
Nunavut1 0 5 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 1 3 8 0 0 2 0 6 3 2
Yukon 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
Outside Canada 0 11 1 5 1 2 1 5 3 7
Total 65 65 60 51 59 37 51 52 49 50

 

Table 4 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by First Event and Phase of Flight 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
by First Event
Control Loss 30 41 37 23 27 31 24 21 22 22
Power Loss 41 37 37 28 36 20 32 27 22 32
Collision with Object 36 24 21 16 25 16 19 29 24 34
Collision with Terrain 22 30 17 16 25 18 20 24 27 17
Collision with Moving Aircraft 9 3 3 2 1 3 1 8 5 7
Operations-Related Event 12 5 6 6 5 4 10 5 7 2
Component System Malfunction 18 15 13 14 7 16 11 10 14 13
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 15 8 7 10 9 10 3 3 9 8
Runway Overrun 4 2 1 1 1 2 4 3 1 2
Take-off/Landing Event 53 46 47 45 55 39 34 43 64 33
Wheels-up Landing 9 4 5 9 5 6 5 3 6 5
Component System-Related Event 4 10 9 7 13 3 7 4 11 8
Weather-Related Event 7 15 12 12 9 16 13 5 5 5
Aircraft Damage 1 5 4 3 4 2 4 5 3 4
Other/Unknown 25 13 24 18 20 20 19 18 17 8
Total 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 200
Helicopters Involved in Accidents
by First Event
Control Loss 3 3 5 6 3 3 5 7 5 7
Power Loss 12 9 5 9 11 3 5 10 8 3
Collision with Object 8 14 8 5 3 3 6 11 6 5
Collision with Terrain 6 5 4 9 5 7 9 8 7 8
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Operations-Related Event 5 1 2 0 2 6 2 1 2 3
Sling-Related Event 2 2 2 4 2 2 0 4 1 1
Dynamic System Malfunction 0 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0
Dynamic Rollover 0 3 1 3 1 3 4 0 1 3
Autorotative Landing 2 2 3 4 4 0 1 0 0 0
Weather-Related Event 1 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 3 2
Aircraft Damage 3 2 3 1 3 4 5 2 1 1
Other/Unknown 4 7 6 11 8 7 11 10 9 9
Total 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
by Phase of Flight
Standing/Taxiing 17 21 18 22 23 16 19 22 16 13
Take-off 72 59 52 50 47 49 47 44 46 38
En Route 38 39 34 30 40 20 29 35 26 27
Manoeuvring 21 17 15 11 11 8 14 11 12 12
Approach 30 24 36 18 21 23 24 20 21 23
Landing 105 91 87 72 93 83 70 73 109 81
Post-Impact 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Unknown 2 7 1 7 6 6 3 3 7 6
Total 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 200
Helicopters Involved in Accidents
by Phase of Flight
Standing 4 2 3 2 1 6 5 5 2 3
Take-off 4 9 5 9 5 6 9 10 6 6
En Route 6 8 10 7 6 6 8 12 12 11
Hover/Lift 10 4 5 3 4 4 3 7 3 3
Manoeuvring 8 14 2 9 9 7 4 7 8 3
Approach/Landing 12 13 19 21 18 11 15 13 13 16
Unknown 2 3 2 5 1 1 6 2 2 0
Total 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42

 

Table 5 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents
First Event vs. Phase of Flight 1999–2008
  Phase of Flight
  Standing/
Taxiing
Take-off En Route Manoeuvring Approach Landing Other/
Unknown
Total

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Aeroplanes Involved in
Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 8 94 11 23 15 124 3 278
Power Loss 0 102 129 24 54 2 1 312
Collision with Object 52 58 20 22 35 54 3 244
Collision with Terrain 8 46 42 27 28 44 21 216
Collision with Moving Aircraft 21 6 4 7 4 0 0 42
Operations-Related Event 5 20 12 3 7 14 1 62
Component System Malfunction 9 24 19 4 35 39 1 131
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 11 7 0 0 0 64 0 82
Runway Overrun 1 2 0 0 0 18 0 21
Take-off/Landing Event 4 71 3 2 11 365 3 459
Wheels-up Landing 0 0 0 0 0 57 0 57
Component System-Related Event 1 21 25 4 8 17 0 76
Weather-Related Event 4 27 24 5 23 15 1 99
Aircraft Damage 28 4 0 1 0 2 0 35
Other/Unknown 35 22 29 10 20 49 17 182
Total 187 504 318 132 240 864 51 2296
  Phase of Flight
  Standing Take-off En Route Hover/
Lift
Manoeuvring Approach/
Landing
Unknown Total
Helicopters Involved in
Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 5 9 3 2 9 17 2 47
Power Loss 0 7 22 8 16 21 1 75
Collision with Object 3 9 0 10 13 32 2 69
Collision with Terrain 5 9 17 5 11 17 4 68
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3
Operations-Related Event 1 6 2 3 3 7 2 24
Sling-Related Event 0 5 1 7 6 1 0 20
Dynamic System Malfunction 0 2 3 0 3 1 0 9
Dynamic Rollover 1 9 0 0 0 8 1 19
Autorotative Landing 0 0 0 0 1 14 1 16
Weather-Related Event 1 1 13 2 0 6 0 23
Aircraft Damage 7 3 1 4 0 7 3 25
Other/Unknown 10 8 23 5 9 19 8 82
Total 33 69 86 46 71 151 24 480

 

Table 6 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
First Event vs. Commercial or Operator Type 1999–2008
  Commercial Type Operator Type
  Airliner Commuter Air Taxi Aerial Work Corporate State Private/Other

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Aeroplanes Involved in
Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 1 6 36 8 7 0 220
Power Loss 2 0 47 34 6 1 222
Collision with Object 11 12 48 28 7 7 131
Collision with Terrain 3 6 53 16 2 2 134
Collision with Moving Aircraft 6 2 4 3 1 1 25
Operations-Related Event 1 0 12 5 0 0 44
Component System Malfunction 5 10 30 5 1 6 74
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 1 4 16 2 0 1 58
Runway Overrun 1 1 6 0 0 0 13
Take-off/Landing Event 11 8 72 19 9 2 338
Wheels-up Landing 2 1 14 3 2 1 34
Component System-Related Event 3 1 10 4 2 1 55
Weather-Related Event 1 3 27 6 1 0 61
Aircraft Damage 4 4 3 1 1 1 21
Other/Unknown 9 3 37 9 3 1 120
Total 61 61 415 143 42 24 1550
Aeroplanes Involved in
Fatal Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 0 1 10 1 2 0 21
Power Loss 0 0 2 1 0 0 19
Collision with Object 0 0 2 2 0 1 9
Collision with Terrain 2 3 20 6 1 2 61
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 0 0 0 1 1 9
Operations-Related Event 0 0 1 0 0 0 3
Component System Malfunction 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Runway Overrun 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Take-off/Landing Event 0 2 0 1 0 0 2
Wheels-up Landing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Component System-Related Event 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Weather-Related Event 0 0 3 0 1 0 5
Aircraft Damage 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 7 1 1 0 21
Total 2 6 45 12 6 4 156

 

Table 7 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
First Event vs. Pilot Licence Type 1999–2008
  Pilot Licence Type1
  Student Private Commercial Air
Transport
Total
  1. Accident pilots for whom the licence type is unknown, and pilots with other licence types are excluded.

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Aeroplanes Involved in
Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 8 18 19 11 56
Power Loss 3 20 18 9 50
Collision with Object 3 12 23 5 43
Collision with Terrain 1 20 33 17 71
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 7 7 2 16
Operations-Related Event 3 5 4 0 12
Component System Malfunction 1 4 3 8 16
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 0 4 1 3 8
Runway Overrun 0 2 2 3 7
Take-off/Landing Event 4 16 15 13 48
Wheels-up Landing 0 1 1 1 3
Component System-Related Event 0 3 4 2 9
Weather-Related Event 0 7 8 5 20
Aircraft Damage 1 2 2 1 6
Other/Unknown 2 16 14 9 41
Total 26 137 154 89 406

 

Table 8 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Operation Type 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
Training 43 45 46 20 34 25 16 34 33 30
Pleasure/Travel 130 116 108 102 122 118 116 96 120 82
Business 10 9 10 6 8 5 6 8 15 7
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 9 5 7 7 5 7 5 6 8 4
Aerial Application 9 12 13 6 13 3 6 8 8 9
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 5 0 1
Survey/Inspection 2 0 2 5 2 1 7 3 2 2
Air Ambulance 3 0 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 3
Air Transport 67 53 43 49 42 37 36 38 41 50
Sightseeing 0 5 1 1 4 0 2 3 1 1
Other/Unknown 11 10 8 10 9 5 9 4 7 11
Total 286 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 200
Aeroplanes Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 2 2 2 1 3 4 0 4 3 0
Pleasure/Travel 14 12 10 11 15 10 12 11 10 6
Business 3 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 4 1
Aerial Application 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Survey/Inspection 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 1
Air Ambulance 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Air Transport 5 4 4 5 4 3 7 5 4 3
Sightseeing 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 1
Total 28 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25 15
Helicopters Involved in Accidents
Training 6 11 11 9 6 4 3 2 3 6
Pleasure/Travel 0 3 4 2 1 5 11 4 4 9
Business 1 1 4 6 1 0 1 0 4 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 3 4 1 5 0 2 0 2 3 0
Aerial Application 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 0 2 1
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 7 2 2 6 6 4 1 3 0 0
Survey/Inspection 4 4 0 3 8 2 1 1 2 1
Air Ambulance 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Air Transport 10 11 12 14 11 16 19 29 16 22
Sightseeing 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 13 15 10 10 9 7 11 15 12 2
Total 46 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42
Helicopters Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pleasure/Travel 0 1 2 0 0 1 5 0 0 3
Business 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Aerial Application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0
Survey/Inspection 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Air Ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air Transport 1 1 1 0 0 2 3 2 3 4
Sightseeing 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 2 5 1 3 1 0 1 4 2 1
Total 4 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7 9

 

Table 9 – Reportable Incidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Incident Type 1999–2008
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
  1. Incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft only; Table 1 includes those involving foreign aircraft

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Incidents
Risk of Collision/Loss of Separation 142 130 170 169 123 182 150 150 152 149
Declared Emergency 173 174 208 231 229 204 152 184 186 235
Engine Failure 121 129 157 134 104 118 116 106 108 98
Smoke/Fire 71 71 92 83 82 81 85 86 106 90
Collision 7 8 17 19 16 21 8 18 9 6
Control Difficulties 18 25 28 28 41 41 41 31 38 32
Crew Unable to Perform Duties 17 15 13 37 48 51 67 56 63 74
Dangerous Goods-Related 3 2 6 0 2 0 1 2 3 1
Depressurization 6 4 15 18 17 7 12 9 11 15
Fuel Shortage 7 1 2 1 6 10 5 6 4 4
Failure to Remain in Landing Area 10 13 4 6 3 10 10 6 7 15
Incorrect Fuel 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 1
Slung Load Released 5 6 8 3 4 5 1 3 3 5
Transmission or Gearbox Failure 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 0
Total1 583 580 722 732 676 734 650 658 691 725

 

Table 10 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Reportable Incidents
Selected Incident Types vs. First Event 2004–2008
Incident Type First Event  

Figures are preliminary as of 18 March 2009.

Risk of Collision/Loss of Separation
1278 Aircraft Involved
Air Proximity 396
ATS-Related Event 714
Altitude-Related Event 33
Runway Incursion 53
Other 82
Declared Emergency
961 Aircraft Involved
Landing Gear Failure 202
Hydraulic Failure 120
Electrical Failure 35
Other Component Failure 396
Other 208
Engine Failure
546 Aircraft Involved
Power Loss – First Engine 259
Component Failure 244
Other 43
Smoke/Fire
448 Aircraft Involved
Fire/Explosion 328
Component Failure 109
Other 11
Control Difficulties
185 Aircraft Involved
Component Failure 76
Weather-Related Event 51
Other 58

 

Appendix B – Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation Occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable Aviation Accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or
    3. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
  2. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable Aviation Incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member’s duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious Injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-Related Event-Related Event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air Proximity Event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial Operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a "for-hire" service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter Aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a multi‑engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo‑jet‑powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial Work Aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving:

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air Taxi Aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single‑engined aircraft;
  2. a multi‑engined aircraft, other than a turbo‑jet‑powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State Operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate Operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private Operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a "for-hire" basis.


  1. It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<.05).
  2. As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, users are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All tables except Table 1 exclude ultralight aircraft; all tables except Tables 1 and 4 also exclude balloons, gliders and gyrocopters.
  3. Canadian‑registered aircraft (excluding ultralights).
  4. Refer to Appendix B for the definition of ATS-Related Event-related event.