Statistical Summary – Aviation Occurrences 2009

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Foreword

This document provides users of Canadian aviation safety data with an annual summary of selected statistics on aviation occurrences.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics can change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified. Therefore, caution should be used when utilizing these statistics. The 2009 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated as of 2 March 2010.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary, Aviation Occurrences 2009, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.

Comments on this document can be forwarded to the following address:

Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Communications Division
Place du Centre
200 Promenade du Portage
4th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 1K8

Telephone: (819) 994-3741
Facsimile: (819) 997-2239
E-mail: communications@tsb.gc.ca

© Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2009
Cat. No. TU1-3/2009E
ISBN 978-1-100-17629-1


Aviation Occurrences in 2009

Accidents

Overview of Accidents and Fatalities (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 8)

In 2009, a total of 297 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB. Of this number, 249 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights), a 1.2% decrease from 2008 (Figure 1).

Flying activity is lower than last year and the accident rate has increased from the 2008 accident rate of 5.5 accidents per 100 000 flying hours to 5.9. However, statistical analysis using linear regression still indicates a significant downward trend in accident rates (p < .01)1 over the past 10 years.

The 249 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) included 215 aeroplanes2 (54 of which were commercially operated) and 32 helicopters. The remaining 7 were balloons, gliders or gyrocopters.

Figure 1 - Accidents and Accident Rates,3 2000-2009 [D]

Figure 1 - Accidents and Accident Rates 2000-2009

Of the 54 commercial aeroplanes (2 airliners, 5 commuter aircraft, 36 air taxi and 11 aerial work) involved in accidents in 2009 (Figure 2), 5 air taxi aircraft were involved in fatal accidents. There were no fatal accidents involving airliners, commuter aircraft or aerial work aircraft.

A total of 158 private/corporate/other aeroplanes were involved in accidents, 5% higher than the five-year average of 150. In 2009, 15 such accidents resulted in fatalities, up from 13 in 2008 and equal to the five-year average.

Figure 2 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2009 [D]

Figure 2 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Aircraft Type, 2009

In 2009, Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, were involved in 28 fatal accidents (Figure 3), 8% higher than last year's total of 26 but lower than the 2004-2008 average of 30. The number of fatalities (64) was higher than the five-year average (49), and the number of serious injuries (34) decreased slightly from the five-year average (40). Passenger fatalities accounted for 55% of aircraft fatalities in 2009, and crew member fatalities accounted for 45% (excluding fatalities from ultralight accidents).

Figure 3 - Fatalities and Fatal Accidents, 2000-2009 [D]

Figure 3 - Fatalities and Fatal Accidents, 2000-2009

Aeroplanes operated by the state (that is, operated by federal or provincial governments) were involved in 2 accidents in 2009, with no fatalities.

In 2009, 32 helicopters were involved in accidents, yielding a 32% decrease from the five-year average of 47. Of the 32 helicopters, 7 were involved in fatal accidents, resulting in 26 fatalities. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (34%) and training (13%).

In 2009, 34 ultralight aircraft were involved in accidents in Canada, with 3 accidents resulting in 4 fatalities, which is a 45% decrease from the five-year average.

In 2009, 14 accidents involved foreign-registered aircraft in Canada, with 2 fatal accidents resulting in 2 fatalities.

Accidents by Selected Categories

Province (Table 3): In 2009, Ontario and Quebec each accounted for 24% of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents, while British Columbia accounted for 18%. Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were lower than the five-year average in the Atlantic Provinces, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia Nunavut, Yukon and Northwest Territories, and higher than the five-year average in Quebec and Manitoba (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2009 [D]

Figure 4 - Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Province, 2009

Events and Phases (Tables 4 to 7): Accidents are frequently classified according to the first event (or abnormal condition) in the sequence of events that led to the occurrence. This classification serves to demonstrate the nature and distribution of safety-significant events, and how these events shift over time. However, the first event should not be construed to be the cause of the accident.

In 2009, the most common first events in aeroplane accidents were take-off/landing events (20%) and power loss events (14%) . Control loss (13%) and collision with object (10%) were the next most common first events. In helicopter accidents, power loss (15%), collision with object (15%), and collision with terrain (15%) were the most common first events.

The 2000-2009 statistics show that the first event leading to an accident varies substantially according to the flight phase of the aircraft involved. For aeroplanes, accidents during the landing phase account for about 38% of total accidents. The most common first events in such accidents were landing (such as nose over, tire blow-out, etc.) and control loss. Approximately 22% of aeroplane accidents occur during the take-off phase; in these accidents, power loss and control loss were the most common first events. The en-route phase accounted for about 14% of aeroplane accidents, with power loss being the most common first event in that flight phase.

The approach/landing phase accounted for 32% of helicopter accidents, with the most common first events being collision with object and power loss. The en route phase (20%) had power loss and collision with terrain as the most common first events. The take-off phase (15%) had collision with terrain and dynamic rollover as the most common first events. The maneuvering phase (14%) had collision with object, power loss, and collision with terrain as the most common first events.

Operation Type (Table 8): In 2009, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (51%), followed by training flights (20%) and air transport (16%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (31%), followed by recreational flights (16%) and training flights (16%).

Incidents

Overview of Incidents (Tables 1, 9 and 10)

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 804 incidents were reported in 2009, 656 of which involved Canadian-registered aircraft.

In 2009, the most frequent incident types were declared emergency (36%), risk of collision or loss of separation (21%), and engine failure (14%) (Figure 5).

Figure 5 - Reportable Incidents by Type, 2009 [D]

Figure 5 - Reportable Incidents by Type, 2009

Over the past five years, the first event in declared emergency on Canadian-registered aircraft usually involved component failures, the most common of which were landing gear or hydraulic system failures.

The majority of risk of collision/loss of separation incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft had an air traffic services (ATS)-related event4 as their first event.

Appendix A - Aviation occurrence tables

Table 1 – Aviation Occurrences and Casualties 2000-2009
  1. Ultralight aircraft excluded
  2. As some accidents may involve multiple aircraft, the number of aircraft involved may differ from the total number of accidents.
  3. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying schools, flying clubs, etc.)
  4. Includes gliders, balloons and gyrocopters
  5. Source: Transport Canada (2007 to 2009 hours flown are estimated)
  6. Accident rate does not include "Other Aircraft Involved" 2009 data as of 02 March 2010.
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Canadian-Registered Aircraft1
Accidents 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 285 252 249
Aeroplanes Involved2 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 201 215
Airliners 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5 8 2
Commuter Aircraft 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4 6 5
Air Taxi 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39 41 36
Aerial Work 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11 12 11
Corporate 5 4 2 2 4 6 2 7 4 4
State 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1 3 2
Private/Other3 175 168 139 169 145 141 146 170 127 154
Helicopters Involved 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42 32
Other Aircraft Involved4 12 9 10 12 9 8 4 5 13 7
Hours Flown (thousands)5 3,982 3,885 3,713 3,790 3,961 3,979 4,059 4,180 4,432 4,171
Accident Rate (per 100 000 hours)6 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.8 5.5 5.9
Fatal Accidents 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33 26 28
Aeroplanes Involved 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25 16 20
Airliners 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Air Taxi 3 5 5 5 3 6 5 5 3 5
Aerial Work 2 1 1 3 0 2 1 1 0 0
Corporate 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0
State 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Private/Other3 18 17 15 18 15 13 16 17 11 15
Helicopters Involved 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7 9 7
Other Aircraft Involved4 1 3 3 4 2 2 0 2 1 1
Fatalities 65 59 51 60 37 55 52 49 51 64
Serious Injuries 53 37 42 42 27 37 40 56 38 34
Canadian-Registered Ultralight Aircraft
Accidents 38 35 36 46 36 31 28 30 29 34
Fatal Accidents 5 6 9 7 6 5 1 5 12 3
Fatalities 9 8 12 9 10 6 1 6 13 4
Serious Injuries 10 8 4 14 7 9 12 7 4 9
Foreign-Registered Aircraft
Accidents in Canada 17 29 13 30 20 18 14 10 15 14
Fatal Accidents 6 8 1 6 3 6 2 0 0 2
Fatalities 16 10 2 8 10 10 2 0 0 2
Serious Injuries 2 5 0 3 2 15 1 2 5 3
All Aircraft: Reportable Incidents 725 853 865 834 910 822 826 895 916 804
Risk of Collision/Loss of Separation 161 204 193 154 223 180 171 171 176 153
Declared Emergency 225 255 280 293 278 224 260 302 327 315
Engine Failure 161 175 160 132 143 148 136 137 128 108
Smoke/Fire 84 107 101 103 94 103 107 125 108 102
Collision 8 19 22 16 21 12 21 14 9 9
Other 86 93 109 136 151 155 131 146 168 117
Table 2 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents, Accident Rates and Fatalities by Operator Type, 2000-2009
  1. Other: Contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (that is, flying schools, flying clubs, etc.)
  2. Source: Transport Canada (2007 to 2009 hours flown are estimated)
  3. Includes gliders, balloons and gyrocopters 2009 data as of 02 March 2010.
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Accidents
Aeroplanes Involved
Airliners 9 5 6 7 3 5 7 5 8 2
Commuter Aircraft 4 8 6 9 1 6 4 4 6 5
Air Taxi 45 37 41 35 43 33 31 39 41 36
Aerial Work 19 18 12 17 8 14 14 11 12 11
State 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 1 3 2
Private/Other/Corporate1 180 172 141 171 149 147 148 177 131 158
Helicopters Involved 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42 32
Total 311 289 266 286 247 256 264 283 243 246
Hours Flown (thousands)2
Aeroplanes 3,440 3,346 3,181 3,215 3,355 3,388 3,422 3,436 3,622 3,456
Airliners 946 984 1,006 1,067 1,205 1,344 1,524 1,723 1,794 1,699
Commuter Aircraft 188 210 208 225 236 266 266 288 307 293
Air Taxi 450 445 454 453 457 475 480 533 553 520
Aerial Work 86 91 92 88 83 89 87 101 102 88
State 73 77 83 85 81 83 64 60 74 77
Private/Other/Corporate 1,696 1,505 1,274 1,297 1,293 1,131 1,002 731 792 779
Helicopters 542 573 596 575 606 591 637 744 810 714
Total 3,982 3,885 3,713 3,790 3,961 3,979 4,059 4,180 4,432 4,171
Accident Rates (per 100 000 hours)
Aeroplanes
Airliners 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.1
Commuter Aircraft 2.1 3.8 2.9 4.0 0.4 2.3 1.5 1.4 2.0 1.7
Air Taxi 10.0 8.3 9.0 7.7 9.4 6.9 6.5 7.3 7.4 6.9
Aerial Work 22.1 19.8 13.1 19.3 9.6 15.8 16.1 10.9 11.7 12.5
State 1.4 3.9 4.8 3.5 2.5 1.2 6.3 1.7 4.0 2.6
Private/Other/Corporate 10.6 11.4 11.1 13.2 11.5 13.0 14.8 24.2 16.5 20.3
Helicopters 9.8 8.0 9.4 7.7 6.8 8.5 8.8 6.2 5.2 4.5
Total (all aircraft) 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.8 5.5 5.9
Fatalities: Crew
Aeroplanes 
Airliners 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 2 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Air Taxi 2 4 1 5 2 7 5 6 3 6
Aerial Work 3 1 1 4 0 2 1 1 0 0
Corporate 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0
State 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Private/Other 20 17 15 15 14 11 16 17 10 15
Helicopters 10 7 6 3 4 8 6 6 7 7
Other Aircraft3 1 2 3 3 2 3 0 1 1 1
Total 42 34 27 30 22 33 29 32 23 29
Fatalities: Passengers
Aeroplanes
Airliners 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Air Taxi 5 8 7 10 14 5 10 2 10 8
Aerial Work 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other 6 12 16 16 1 7 7 11 4 8
Helicopters 8 2 0 3 0 7 5 1 8 19
Other Aircraft 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Total 20 25 23 29 15 22 22 17 27 35
Fatalities: Ground
All Aircraft 3 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
Table 3 – Accidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Province/Territory, 2000-2009
  1. This territory was created on 01 April 1999. 2009 data as of 02 March 2010.
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 14 10 6 9 5 5 3 5 5 3
Prince Edward Island 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
Nova Scotia 9 3 7 1 3 0 0 3 2 1
New Brunswick 5 4 2 1 5 5 2 7 1 2
Quebec 55 48 42 55 44 56 48 61 50 60
Ontario 73 64 74 80 71 57 52 71 62 61
Manitoba 17 28 17 28 12 18 18 17 24 19
Saskatchewan 9 18 18 16 13 13 18 21 18 12
Alberta 39 36 46 34 29 28 41 31 28 28
British Columbia 68 58 41 54 46 59 53 36 33 44
Nunavut1 4 2 1 0 2 2 6 4 7 1
Northwest Territories 11 12 4 5 7 5 6 9 8 5
Yukon 6 4 4 4 6 3 4 6 7 2
Outside Canada 9 7 12 7 9 7 11 14 7 10
Total 320 295 274 295 252 259 262 285 252 249
Fatal Accidents
Newfoundland and Labrador 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 2
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Nova Scotia 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Quebec 5 6 6 5 4 9 3 4 4 8
Ontario 4 6 5 11 2 6 4 6 4 5
Manitoba 0 2 1 0 2 2 0 3 1 0
Saskatchewan 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 4 0 1
Alberta 3 2 2 3 2 2 6 3 4 1
British Columbia 10 11 9 8 6 12 9 9 6 8
Nunavut1 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1
Yukon 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
Outside Canada 4 1 3 1 2 1 4 1 4 1
Total 38 33 31 32 24 34 31 33 26 28
Fatalities
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 3 2 3 1 2 0 1 0 18
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Nova Scotia 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Quebec 8 12 14 9 4 12 6 5 6 14
Ontario 5 8 6 27 14 10 6 7 4 11
Manitoba 0 4 1 0 2 2 0 4 1 0
Saskatchewan 2 0 2 1 2 0 3 5 0 2
Alberta 3 4 3 4 2 4 9 5 8 1
British Columbia 19 17 16 13 6 23 16 15 22 14
Nunavut 5 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 3 8 0 0 2 0 6 3 2 2
Yukon 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
Outside Canada 11 1 5 1 2 1 5 3 7 1
Total 65 60 51 60 37 55 52 49 51 64
Table 4 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by First Event and Phase of Flight 2000 - 2009
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 41 37 23 27 31 24 21 22 22 31
Power Loss 37 39 28 38 20 33 27 23 34 38
Collision with Object 24 21 16 25 16 19 29 23 34 23
Collision with Terrain 30 16 16 25 18 20 24 27 17 13
Collision with Moving Aircraft 3 3 2 1 3 1 8 5 7 7
Operations-Related Event 5 6 6 5 4 10 5 7 2 3
Component System Malfunction 15 13 14 7 16 11 10 14 14 16
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 8 7 10 9 10 3 3 9 8 8
Runway Overrun 2 1 1 1 2 4 3 1 2 1
Take-off/Landing Event 46 47 45 54 39 34 43 64 32 35
Wheels-up Landing 4 5 9 5 6 5 3 6 5 9
Component System-Related Event 10 8 7 12 3 7 4 11 7 9
Weather-Related Event 15 12 12 9 16 12 5 5 5 5
Aircraft Damage 5 4 3 4 2 5 6 3 4 0
Other/Unknown 13 24 18 20 20 18 17 17 8 17
Total 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 201 215
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 3 5 6 3 3 5 7 5 7 2
Power Loss 9 5 9 11 3 5 10 8 3 7
Collision with Object 14 8 5 3 3 6 11 6 5 7
Collision with Terrain 5 4 9 5 7 9 8 7 8 6
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Operations-Related Event 1 2 0 2 6 2 1 2 3 1
Sling-Related Event 2 2 4 2 2 0 4 1 1 2
Dynamic System Malfunction 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
Dynamic Rollover 3 1 3 1 3 4 0 1 3 1
Autorotative Landing 2 3 4 4 0 1 0 0 0 1
Weather-Related Event 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 1
Aircraft Damage 2 3 1 3 4 5 2 1 1 1
Other/Unknown 7 6 11 8 7 11 10 9 9 3
Total 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42 32
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by Phase of Flight
Standing/Taxiing 21 18 22 23 16 20 23 16 13 23
Take-off 59 52 50 47 49 47 44 46 38 47
En Route 39 34 30 40 20 29 35 26 28 36
Manoeuvring 17 15 11 11 8 14 11 12 12 3
Approach 24 36 18 21 23 24 20 21 23 24
Landing 91 87 72 93 83 70 73 109 81 78
Post-Impact 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Unknown 7 1 7 6 6 2 2 7 6 4
Total 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 201 215
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by Phase of Flight
Standing 2 3 2 1 6 5 5 2 3 2
Take-off 9 5 9 5 6 9 10 6 6 4
En Route 8 10 7 6 6 8 12 12 11 11
Hover/Lift 4 5 3 4 4 3 7 3 3 4
Manoeuvring 14 2 9 9 7 4 7 8 3 2
Approach/Landing 13 19 21 18 11 15 13 13 16 9
Unknown 3 2 5 1 1 6 2 2 0 0
Total 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42 32
Table 5 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents First Event vs. Phase of Flight 2000-2009
  Phase of Flight
  Standing/
Taxiing
Take-off En Route Manoeuvring Approach Landing Other/
Unknown
Total
Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 9 91 10 21 14 130 4 279
Power Loss 0 108 132 22 51 2 2 317
Collision with Object 54 58 19 19 30 46 4 230
Collision with Terrain 7 46 42 23 24 43 21 206
Collision with Moving Aircraft 24 3 4 4 2 3 0 40
Operations-Related Event 5 15 11 2 7 12 1 53
Component System Malfunction 11 24 19 3 38 34 1 130
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 12 7 0 0 0 56 0 75
Runway Overrun 1 2 0 0 0 15 0 18
Take-off/Landing Event 4 62 3 2 12 353 3 439
Wheels-up Landing 0 0 0 0 0 57 0 57
Component System-Related Event 2 20 26 3 11 16 0 78
Weather-Related Event 5 23 23 5 23 16 1 96
Aircraft Damage 30 3 0 1 0 2 0 36
Other/Unknown 31 17 28 9 22 52 13 172
Total 195 479 317 114 234 837 50 2226
  Phase of Flight
  Standing/
Taxiing
Take-off En Route Hover/Lift Manoeuvring Approach/
Landing
Unknown Total
Helicopters Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 3 9 4 3 9 17 1 46
Power Loss 0 8 24 5 12 20 1 70
Collision with Object 3 9 0 7 13 34 2 68
Collision with Terrain 4 10 17 6 11 16 4 68
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3
Operations-Related Event 1 3 2 3 3 6 2 20
Sling-Related Event 1 5 1 6 5 2 0 20
Dynamic System Malfunction 0 2 3 0 3 1 0 9
Dynamic Rollover 1 10 0 0 0 8 1 20
Autorotative Landing 0 0 0 0 1 14 0 15
Weather-Related Event 1 1 13 2 0 6 0 23
Aircraft Damage 8 3 1 2 0 6 3 23
Other/Unknown 9 8 25 6 8 17 8 81
Total 31 69 91 40 65 148 22 466
Table 6 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents, First Event vs. Aeroplane Type, 2000 – 2009
  Aeroplane Type
  Airliner Commuter Air Taxi Aerial Work Corporate State Private/Other

2009 data as of 02 March 2010.

Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 1 6 32 8 7 0 225
Power Loss 2 0 46 34 6 0 229
Collision with Object 10 11 42 26 5 8 128
Collision with Terrain 2 4 49 14 1 2 134
Collision with Moving Aircraft 6 2 5 5 0 1 21
Operations-Related Event 1 1 9 3 0 0 39
Component System Malfunction 5 9 31 4 1 6 73
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 1 2 16 2 0 0 54
Runway Overrun 0 1 6 0 0 0 11
Take-off/Landing Event 12 6 62 19 10 2 328
Wheels-up Landing 1 1 12 4 3 2 34
Component System-Related Event 3 1 9 3 2 1 59
Weather-Related Event 1 3 25 5 1 0 61
Aircraft Damage 4 3 3 1 1 1 23
Other/Unknown 8 3 34 8 3 1 115
Total 57 53 381 136 40 24 1534
Aeroplanes Involved in Fatal Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 0 1 9 1 2 0 22
Power Loss 0 0 2 1 0 0 19
Collision with Object 0 0 1 2 0 1 10
Collision with Terrain 1 1 20 5 0 2 63
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 1 6
Operations-Related Event 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
Component System Malfunction 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Runway Overrun 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Take-off/Landing Event 0 2 0 1 0 0 3
Wheels-up Landing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Component System-Related Event 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Weather-Related Event 0 0 4 0 1 0 4
Aircraft Damage 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 8 1 1 0 20
Total 1 4 45 11 4 4 155
Table 7 – Canadian-Registered Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents, First Event vs. Pilot Licence Type, 2000 – 2009
  Pilot Licence Type1
  Student Private Commercial Air Transport Total
  1. Accident pilots for whom the licence type is unknown, and pilots with other licence types were excluded.

2009 data as of 02 March 2010.

Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents by First Event
Control Loss 8 16 19 10 53
Power Loss 4 26 18 10 58
Collision with Object 4 15 23 5 47
Collision with Terrain 1 20 29 14 64
Collision with Moving Aircraft 0 2 8 2 12
Operations-Related Event 3 5 5 0 13
Component System Malfunction 1 5 4 10 20
Landing Gear Collapsed/Retracted 0 4 1 4 9
Runway Overrun 0 3 2 2 7
Take-off/Landing Event 5 21 17 13 56
Wheels-up Landing 0 1 1 2 4
Component System-Related Event 0 3 3 2 8
Weather-Related Event 0 6 7 5 18
Aircraft Damage 1 2 2 1 6
Other/Unknown 2 16 15 10 43
Total 29 145 154 90 418
Table 8 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Accidents by Operation Type, 2000–2009
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2009 data as of 02 March 2010.

Aeroplanes Involved in Accidents
Training 45 46 20 34 25 16 34 33 30 43
Pleasure/Travel 116 108 102 122 118 116 96 120 82 109
Business 9 10 6 8 5 6 8 15 7 4
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 5 7 7 5 7 5 6 8 4 0
Aerial Application 12 13 6 13 3 6 8 8 9 5
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 3 2 2 2 3 2 5 0 1 3
Survey/Inspection 0 2 5 2 1 7 3 2 2 3
Air Ambulance 0 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 5
Air Transport 53 43 49 42 37 36 38 41 50 34
Sightseeing 5 1 1 4 0 2 3 1 2 2
Other/Unknown 10 8 10 9 5 9 4 7 11 7
Total 258 243 210 242 206 206 208 237 201 215
Aeroplanes Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 2 2 1 3 4 0 4 3 0 1
Pleasure/Travel 12 10 11 15 10 12 11 10 7 13
Business 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 4 1 0
Aerial Application 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Survey/Inspection 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 0
Air Ambulance 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Air Transport 4 4 5 4 3 7 5 4 3 4
Sightseeing 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0
Total 26 25 23 26 18 22 23 25 16 20
Helicopters Involved in Accidents
Training 11 11 9 6 4 3 2 3 6 5
Pleasure/Travel 3 4 2 1 5 11 4 4 9 5
Business 1 4 6 1 0 1 0 4 0 3
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 4 1 5 0 2 0 2 3 0 0
Aerial Application 2 1 1 2 1 2 0 2 1 0
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 2 2 6 6 4 1 3 0 0 4
Survey/Inspection 4 0 3 8 2 1 1 2 1 1
Air Ambulance 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
Air Transport 11 12 14 11 16 19 29 16 22 10
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other/Unknown 15 10 10 9 7 11 15 12 2 3
Total 53 46 56 44 41 50 56 46 42 32
Helicopters Involved in Fatal Accidents
Training 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Pleasure/Travel 1 2 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 2
Business 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Aerial Application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fire Fighting/Fire Management 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1
Survey/Inspection 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
Air Ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air Transport 1 1 0 0 2 3 2 3 4 3
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 5 1 3 1 0 1 4 2 1 0
Total 11 6 6 3 4 10 9 7 9 7
Table 9 – Incidents Involving Canadian-Registered Aircraft by Incident Type, 2000–2009
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  1. Incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft only; Table 1 includes those involving foreign aircraft

2009 data as of 02 March 2010.

Incidents
Risk of Collision/Loss of Separation 130 170 169 123 182 150 150 152 149 137
Declared Emergency 174 208 231 229 204 152 184 186 235 236
Engine Failure 129 157 134 104 118 116 106 108 98 93
Smoke/Fire 71 92 83 82 81 85 86 106 90 84
Collision 8 17 19 16 21 8 18 9 7 7
Control Difficulties 25 28 28 41 41 41 31 38 32 18
Crew Unable to Perform Duties 15 13 37 48 51 67 56 63 74 57
Dangerous Goods-Related 2 6 0 2 0 1 2 3 1 3
Depressurization 4 15 18 17 7 12 9 11 15 3
Fuel Shortage 1 2 1 6 10 5 6 4 4 4
Failure to Remain in Landing Area 13 4 6 3 10 10 6 7 16 8
Incorrect Fuel 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0
Slung Load Released 6 8 3 4 5 1 3 3 5 3
Transmission or Gearbox Failure 2 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 3
Total1 580 722 732 676 734 650 658 691 727 656
Table 10 – Canadian-Registered Aircraft Involved in Incidents, Selected Incident Types vs. First Event, 2005–2009
Incident Type First Event  

2009 data as of 02 March 2010.

Risk of Collision/ Loss of Separation
   1206 Aircraft Involved
Air Proximity 399
ATS-Related Event 657
Altitude-Related Event 33
Runway Incursion 49
Other 68
Declared Emergency
    993 Aircraft Involved
Landing Gear Failure 226
Hydraulic Failure 128
Electrical Failure 35
Other Component Failure 423
Other 181
Engine Failure
    521 Aircraft Involved
Power Loss – First Engine 255
Component Failure 229
Other 37
Smoke/Fire
    451 Aircraft Involved
Fire/Explosion 336
Component Failure 104
Other 11
Control Difficulties
    162 Aircraft Involved
Component Failure 62
Weather-Related Event 46
Other 54

Appendix B – Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation Occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable Aviation Accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or
    3. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
  2. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable Aviation Incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member’s duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious Injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-Related Event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air Proximity Event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial Operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter Aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a multi‑engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo‑jet‑powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial Work Aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air Taxi Aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single‑engined aircraft;
  2. a multi‑engined aircraft, other than a turbo‑jet‑powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State Operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate Operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private Operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.


  1. It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<.05).
  2. As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, users are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All tables except Table 1 exclude ultralight aircraft; all tables except Tables 1 and 4 also exclude balloons, gliders and gyrocopters.
  3. Canadian‑registered aircraft (excluding ultralights).
  4. Refer to Appendix B for the definition of ATS-related event.